Monday, June 22, 2015

Want To Know What I'm Waiting For?

3D printed moulding planes.

It could be a big thing!!

I know, you think the plastic would wear out quickly, be soft and difficult.

The perfect plastic already exists. I help put it in nearly everyday I work in the hospital helping Orthopedic surgeons implant total joint replacements into hips, knees, shoulders, elbows, and ankles. Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, laboratory tested to hold up to twenty years of continuous pressure, friction, and wear. It does have issues with exposure to UV radiation but something like a carbon fiber skin would solve that and and maybe other issues.  

I'm not the engineer I'm standing in as the idea guy. 

Old, historic planes of the past, scanned in and reproduced. Impervious to moisture and humidity changes yet inexpensive enough you can still drill a hang hole through them and feel zero guilt. CNC plane blades could be matched up to the computed profile exactly, no fine tuning, no guess work. Just straight usable planes cheep, customized, and delivered right to your shop. 

Hell you could probably get them from a vending machine at your local Home Depot or Lowes!

With this technology how cheep can a full set of hollows and rounds get? Think about it. Skewed blades. Custom coloring. Logos. Customization of profiles. Customization of bed angles to deal with difficult grains and woods. Print on demand. Thousands of "historic" profiles to select from.

I want in on the ground floor of this. Whoever picks this up and runs with it owes me at least one of every plane they produce so lets make this happen folks. Are any of the Chinese manufacturing corporations I get a dozen (or more) emails a week from really listening? Time to put your Yuan where your mouth is.

Ratione et Passionis

Wednesday, June 17, 2015


Run! Don't just walk from the mistakes of your past. 
Don't forget them, but don't let them hang their anchor chain around your neck and drag you under. 

Exorcise the demon and move forward. 

Ratione et Passionis

Sunday, June 7, 2015

When Is A Chair Not A Chair?

One of the frustrations I have experienced in many years of trying to research medieval furniture is the contrasting convictions of those who are supposed to be experts. For some things I wish the whole lot of them would come together at a convention, examine each other's evidence, and converge on a resolution of accepted truth.

There is no more controversial furniture item than the simple chair and the question of what it was; not to mention who had one and who did not.

A Peter Galbert Windsor Chair. A form I long to figure out for myself. 

On one hand you have an accepted expert in furniture history and styles, John Gloag who writes in his book "A Social History of Furniture Design from BC 1300 to AD 1960" writes the following.

"Early inventories and wills, of which many survive, disclose how scantily homes were furnished; even wealthy citizens owned little besides a trestle table, with boards that could stand in a corner or against a wall except at meal times, a few benches and three legged stools, for chairs were a rarity, and in the richest houses there was seldom more than one, which was used exclusively by the master of the household, not an easy chair, but something massive and stately, too heavy to be moved about and usually kept in place. As mentioned in chapter one, basketwork chairs were almost certainly in common use; but they had no more social prestige than a three legged stool." 

I won't go into the contradictions included even in these couple sentences. Instead I will just point out the difficulty involved in even defining what a chair is and isn't and the apophasis of talking about a piece of furniture that seemed to hardly exist.

A chair shown in the left background of Vittore Carpaccio's painting St. Augustine In His Study. (C. 1502) Pretty far out and space age for being a relatively new form of furniture. 

Taken in contrast are the words of Frances and Joseph Giles in their book, "Life In A Medieval Castle"

"A peasant's possessions consisted of three or four benches and stools, a trestle table, a chest,one or two iron or brass pots, a little pottery ware, wooden bowls, cups, and spoons, linen towels, wool blankets, iron tools, and most important, his livestock."

I will admit, no explicit mention of chairs, but the peasant's worldly goods appear to sound pretty similar to Gloag's description of the wealthy. It's not the standard Monty Python view of medieval peasants digging around in the mud and filth.

Boarded Chair shown in the Morgan Bible

The plot thickens as Penelope Eames writes in the best and most completely researched book on medieval furniture I've found  "Medieval Furniture."

"The use of important seats was not the sole prerogative of rank but was conditioned by social makeup at a particular occasion and individuals, including peasants, in their own homes might occupy a distinctive seat which they would not aspire to in a feudal lord's hall."

Here we have a connection to a "distinctive seat" in most homes. An echo of Gloag's find of a Master's Chair.

Faldstuhl or Sella Curulis shown in the Morgan Bible

I feel strongly that the jury is still out on the existence of a medieval chair and the true issue is the considerations in defining the object itself. If a chair is only four legs and a back, then it is fairly simple to make. (Though I know enough to understand simple things can be difficult to perfect.) When I think about it my mind wanders to Jennie Alexander and her book "Make A Chair From A Tree." where she writes:

"You need very few tools to go into the woods and bust a chair out of a tree. You could get by with an ax, a saw, a drawknife, a whittling knife, and a brace and bit."

One of Jennie Alexander's chairs. 

Chairs are the most important piece of furniture connected to the human experience. There is deep reverence and symbolism piled on their form, from a gilded throne of kings to the threadbare upholstery and memories covering "dad's favorite chair." They hold the origins to the phrases "Chairman of the Board," and "Seat of Authority," that convey their relevance to social norms. They are the first thing we look for after a long day of work and need a few minutes off our feet and they allow us to easily gather in groups to join in a meal, or a prayer.

Chairs are important.

Chairs have always been important . . .

. . . .to everyone.

Turned Chair shown in the Morgan Bible

One of the best things about limiting my furniture to the pieces shown in the Morgan Bible is I don't have to wade into a debate over whether or not Jim The Theoretical Medieval Peasant had something in his house he called his chair. The artisan's of the bible have gifted me with chairs to build. In fact three different types to decipher and build.

Once they're done I won't have to debase myself by sitting upon a lowly bench, basketwork chair, or three legged stool.

Three legged staked backstool built by Chris Schwarz. Definitely, probably not a chair. 

Ratione et Passionis

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

Roubo's Tool Chest

I've been thinking about moulding planes, hollows and rounds, and planes in general a lot lately.  I've been psyching myself up to possibly make a few in the future but I tend to let ideas digest for a good long while before I act on them. A big part of the marinating process is researching until I feel like I have a solid grasp on the whole concept and can visualize it in my mind. Moulding planes will deserve a significant amount of this navel gazing before they come to light.

I spent a while the other day perusing the profiles in the Benjamin Seaton Tool Chest book and later that night cracked open my copy of "The Book Of Plates" from Roubo's "L'art Du Menuisier."  I love pulling this book down and looking inside, every time feels like an occasion. The plates are packed full of information you don't need the text to decipher.

I started by looking at the moulding planes

 Not wanting to crush my scanner under the weight of the book, nor impeach upon Lost Art Press's superior scans, I'm using some slightly cleaned up scans from the New York Public Library's Digital Collection in this post. 
The detail in the plates is . . .

Besides the feelings I have for this book (this was starting to turn into a love letter) I started to wonder why it has seemed somewhat . .  . passed over. I'll admit I'm not the most connected person among the modern hand tool making glitterati, but do read quite a bit about whats going on, (outside the woodworking forums, I have vowed to stay out of Mordor as much as I can resist)

There was the initial sonic boom as the book landed in people's mailboxes, but shortly after that settled down, I've heard next to nothing. I certainly would have thought, by now, we would be seeing more representations of the tools shown on the plates. Following the effect of Plate 11 and it's workbench, I thought there'd be more showings from Roubo's tool chest on the horizon by now.

Especially the moulding planes.

I know we've accustomed ourselves to the English and American style planes of the last few centuries and the modern maker's efforts have been to reproduce these familiar and effective tools. but there is something different about the planes Roubo is showing us and it seems to me like it's been passed over as part of a really cool book and that's about it.

Looking at the plane profiles above I'd say these planes, the complex moulders and beaders, are used perpendicular to the surface instead of the skewed angle I've become accustomed to, but the blades are bedded at a skewed angle. I also see more evidence of sidewall blades or "nickers" but there is a ton here to be explored.

Even the Kerfing Plane may not be as novel as we've thought. Of course this could be a dado or stair saw, but in the lower corner of the plate shows two men working at benches and one of them is resawing a board with a bow saw. It's been my observation that when these guys show up, their work is related to the tools shown in the plate, thought they are often not using the exact tools in the plate.

These tools, more that the moulding planes, deserve to be built and explored by our hands. Some have made the tools he's shown. Brian Eve over at Toolerable made some planes I like very much. Heck I got an article in Popular Woodworking from the veneer press vise shown on Plate 280. There are a few others out there but I haven't seen as much as I thought I would, especially from the tool makers, and that's a shame.

I may just have to explore more myself, there are, of course, other things to do first.

Ratione et Passionis

Monday, June 1, 2015

Workshop Aromatherapy.

 If any of my girls floats into the shop while I'm working they will avoid standing near the double boiler glue pot at all costs. "Dad, that glue smells!"

I'll admit, hot hide glue has it's own bouquet, I don't find it offensive, but I can understand if you're not expecting it, it can make you pay attention. Boy oh boy did they miss out on the treat today. The shop smelled wonderful, that's not sarcasm. It was light, sweet, and floral.

I wasn't heating animal protein, it was beeswax.

I have developed a love for the polissoir (as you can see from my small collection) This tool has changed my finishing and my surface preparation  for the better. A smoothing plane followed by burnishing. Forget about it.

And the application of beeswax, whether applied directly by the polissoir or melted over a burnished surface and hand buffed. Especially woods like walnut or cherry. . .

I managed to get my hands on the Model 296 at Handworks 2015. I could tell pretty quickly that there were differences between the other models and this one. It's created in a more traditional wrap bind to appear as accurate to the one shown in L'art Du Menuiser. The other models are bound very tightly. If you tap them on the bench they have a resonance of sound that denotes rigidity.

The Model 296, because of the corded wrap and lacking the thicker sheath that surrounds the others, has the barest give to the reeds. That give made me believe this may be the perfect vehicle to follow Roubo's instructions and soak it infuse it with beeswax.

So, into the double boiler went a handful of chunked up beeswax.

Once the wax melted, in went the polissoir. It was important to leave it in place until the reeds reached a temperature with the melted wax, otherwise it would be closer to dipping a candle and I'd get a sheath of wax around the bundle and nothing marinated to the middle.

I soaked each end for a while, I couldn't tell you how long, I was doing other things as well, I pulled it out, let it cool for a bit, then redipped each end again for a shorter time. This time as it cooled I actually set it on end and used a spoon to ladle more wax into the end grain until it could hold no more.

Then before I let it cool completely, I took a shop rag and worked the corded wrap until it had a little texture back to it instead of just a waxy sheath.

Later this evening I used it to buff out a little one day shop distraction I built. Worked beautifully. I'm really happy with this. And that little one day distraction . . . more on that later.

Ratione et Passionis